An advanced threat emulation engineer is conducting testing against a client’s network. The engineer conducts the testing in as realistic a manner as possible. Consequently, the engineer has been gradually ramping up the volume of attacks over a long period of time. Which of the following combinations of techniques would the engineer MOST likely use in this testing? (Choose three.)
A. Black box testing
B. Gray box testing
C. Code review
D. Social engineering
E. Vulnerability assessment
H. White teaming
I. External auditing
After a number of highly publicized and embarrassing customer data leaks as a result of social engineering attacks by phone, the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has decided user training will reduce the risk of another data leak. Which of the following would be MOST effective in reducing data leaks in this situation?
A. Information Security Awareness B. Social Media and BYOD C. Data Handling and Disposal D. Acceptable Use of IT Systems
Explanation: Education and training with regard to Information Security Awareness will reduce the risk of data leaks and as such forms an integral part of Security Awareness. By employing social engineering data can be leaked by employees and only when company users are made aware of the methods of social engineering via Information Security Awareness Training, you can reduce the risk of data leaks.
Which of the following is the BEST reason to provide user awareness and training programs for organizational staff?
A. To ensure proper use of social media B. To reduce organizational IT risk C. To detail business impact analyses D. To train staff on zero-days
Explanation: Ideally, a security awareness training program for the entire organization should cover the following areas: Importance of security Responsibilities of people in the organization Policies and procedures Usage policies Account and password-selection criteria Social engineering prevention
You can accomplish this training either by using internal staff or by hiring outside trainers. This type of training will significantly reduce the organizational IT risk.
Ann, an employee, is cleaning out her desk and disposes of paperwork containing confidential customer information in a recycle bin without shredding it first. This is MOST likely to increase the risk of loss from which of the following attacks?
A. Shoulder surfing B. Dumpster diving C. Tailgating D. Spoofing
Explanation: Dumpster diving is looking for treasure in someone else’s trash. (A dumpster is a large trash container.) In the world of information technology, dumpster diving is a technique used to retrieve information that could be used to carry out an attack on a computer network. Dumpster diving isn’t limited to searching through the trash for obvious treasures like access codes or passwords written down on sticky notes. Seemingly innocent information like a phone list, calendar, or organizational chart can be used to assist an attacker using social engineering techniques to gain access to the network. To prevent dumpster divers from learning anything valuable from your trash, experts recommend that your company establish a disposal policy where all paper, including print-outs, is shredded in a cross-cut shredder before being recycled, all storage media is erased, and all staff is educated about the danger of untracked trash.
Ann an employee is visiting Peter, an employee in the Human Resources Department. While talking to Peter, Ann notices a spreadsheet open on Peter’s computer that lists the salaries of all employees in her department. Which of the following forms of social engineering would BEST describe this situation?
A. Impersonation B. Dumpster diving C. Tailgating D. Shoulder surfing
Explanation: Ann was able to see the Spreadsheet on Peter’s computer. This direct observation is known as shoulder surfing.
Shoulder surfing is using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone’s shoulder, to get information. Shoulder surfing is an effective way to get information in crowded places because it’s relatively easy to stand next to someone and watch as they fill out a form, enter a PIN number at an ATM machine, or use a calling card at a public pay phone. Shoulder surfing can also be done long distance with the aid of binoculars or other vision-enhancing devices. To prevent shoulder surfing, experts recommend that you shield paperwork or your keypad from view by using your body or cupping your hand.
Human Resources (HR) would like executives to undergo only two specific security training programs a year. Which of the following provides the BEST level of security training for the executives? (Select TWO).
A. Acceptable use of social media B. Data handling and disposal C. Zero day exploits and viruses D. Phishing threats and attacks E. Clean desk and BYOD F. Information security awareness
Explanation: Managers/ i.e. executives in the company are concerned with more global issues in the organization, including enforcing security policies and procedures. Managers should receive additional training or exposure that explains the issues, threats, and methods of dealing with threats. Management will also be concerned about productivity impacts and enforcement and how the various departments are affected by security policies. Phishing is a form of social engineering in which you ask someone for a piece of information that you are missing by making it look as if it is a legitimate request. An email might look as if it is from a bank and contain some basic information, such as the user’s name. Executives an easily fall prey to phishing if they are not trained to lookout for these attacks.
Which of the following can be used by a security administrator to successfully recover a user’s forgotten password on a password protected file?
A. Cognitive password B. Password sniffing C. Brute force D. Social engineering
Explanation: One way to recover a user’s forgotten password on a password protected file is to guess it. A brute force attack is an automated attempt to open the file by using many different passwords.
A brute force attack is a trial-and-error method used to obtain information such as a user password or personal identification number (PIN). In a brute force attack, automated software is used to generate a large number of consecutive guesses as to the value of the desired data. Brute force attacks may be used by criminals to crack encrypted data, or by security analysts to test an organization’s network security. A brute force attack may also be referred to as brute force cracking. For example, a form of brute force attack known as a dictionary attack might try all the words in a dictionary. Other forms of brute force attack might try commonly-used passwords or combinations of letters and numbers. An attack of this nature can be time- and resource-consuming. Hence the name “brute force attack;” success is usually based on computing power and the number of combinations tried rather than an ingenious algorithm.
At the outside break area, an employee, Ann, asked another employee to let her into the building because her badge is missing. Which of the following does this describe?
A. Shoulder surfing B. Tailgating C. Whaling D. Impersonation
Explanation: Although Ann is an employee and therefore authorized to enter the building, she does not have her badge and therefore strictly she should not be allowed to enter the building. Just as a driver can tailgate another driver’s car by following too closely, in the security sense, tailgating means to compromise physical security by following somebody through a door meant to keep out intruders. Tailgating is actually a form of social engineering, whereby someone who is not authorized to enter a particular area does so by following closely behind someone who is authorized.
Physical documents must be incinerated after a set retention period is reached. Which of the following attacks does this action remediate?
A. Shoulder Surfing B. Dumpster Diving C. Phishing D. Impersonation
Explanation: Incinerating documents (or shredding documents) instead of throwing them into a bin will prevent people being able to read the documents to view sensitive information. Dumpster diving is looking for treasure in someone else’s trash. (A dumpster is a large trash container.) In the world of information technology, dumpster diving is a technique used to retrieve information that could be used to carry out an attack on a computer network. Dumpster diving isn’t limited to searching through the trash for obvious treasures like access codes or passwords written down on sticky notes. Seemingly innocent information like a phone list, calendar, or organizational chart can be used to assist an attacker using social engineering techniques to gain access to the network. To prevent dumpster divers from learning anything valuable from your trash, experts recommend that your company establish a disposal policy where all paper, including print-outs, is shredded in a cross-cut shredder before being recycled, all storage media is erased, and all staff is educated about the danger of untracked trash.
Which of the following could a security administrator implement to mitigate the risk of tailgating for a large organization?
A. Train employees on correct data disposal techniques and enforce policies. B. Only allow employees to enter or leave through one door at specified times of the day. C. Only allow employees to go on break one at a time and post security guards 24/7 at each entrance. D. Train employees on risks associated with social engineering attacks and enforce policies.
Explanation: Tailgating is the term used for someone being so close to you when you enter a building that they are able to come in right behind you without needing to use a key, a card, or any other security device. Many social engineering intruders needing physical access to a site will use this method of gaining entry. Educate users to beware of this and other social engineering ploys and prevent them from happening.