An administrator connects VoIP phones to the same switch as the network PCs and printers. Which of the following would provide the BEST logical separation of these three device types while still allowing traffic between them via ACL?
A. Create three VLANs on the switch connected to a router B. Define three subnets, configure each device to use their own dedicated IP address range, and then connect the network to a router C. Install a firewall and connect it to the switch D. Install a firewall and connect it to a dedicated switch for each device type
Explanation: A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a hardware-imposed network segmentation created by switches. VLANs are used for traffic management. Communications between ports within the same VLAN occur without hindrance, but communications between VLANs require a routing function.
A router has a single Ethernet connection to a switch. In the router configuration, the Ethernet interface has three sub-interfaces, each configured with ACLs applied to them and 802.1q trunks. Which of the following is MOST likely the reason for the sub-interfaces?
A. The network uses the subnet of 255.255.255.128. B. The switch has several VLANs configured on it. C. The sub-interfaces are configured for VoIP traffic. D. The sub-interfaces each implement quality of service.
Explanation: A subinterface is a division of one physical interface into multiple logical interfaces. Routers commonly employ subinterfaces for a variety of purposes, most common of these are for routing traffic between VLANs. Also, IEEE 802.1Q is the networking standard that supports virtual LANs (VLANs) on an Ethernet network.
A small company can only afford to buy an all-in-one wireless router/switch. The company has 3 wireless BYOD users and 2 web servers without wireless access. Which of the following should the company configure to protect the servers from the user devices? (Select TWO).
A. Deny incoming connections to the outside router interface. B. Change the default HTTP port C. Implement EAP-TLS to establish mutual authentication D. Disable the physical switch ports E. Create a server VLAN F. Create an ACL to access the server
Explanation: We can protect the servers from the user devices by separating them into separate VLANs (virtual local area networks).
The network device in the question is a router/switch. We can use the router to allow access from devices in one VLAN to the servers in the other VLAN. We can configure an ACL (Access Control List) on the router to determine who is able to access the server.
In computer networking, a single layer-2 network may be partitioned to create multiple distinct broadcast domains, which are mutually isolated so that packets can only pass between them via one or more routers; such a domain is referred to as a virtual local area network, virtual LAN or VLAN. This is usually achieved on switch or router devices. Simpler devices only support partitioning on a port level (if at all), so sharing VLANs across devices requires running dedicated cabling for each VLAN. More sophisticated devices can mark packets through tagging, so that a single interconnect (trunk) may be used to transport data for multiple VLANs. Grouping hosts with a common set of requirements regardless of their physical location by VLAN can greatly simplify network design. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical local area network (LAN), but it allows for end stations to be grouped together more easily even if they are not on the same network switch. The network described in this question is a DMZ, not a VLAN.
An administrator is investigating a system that may potentially be compromised, and sees the following log entries on the router. *Jul 15 14:47:29.779:%Router1: list 101 permitted tcp 184.108.40.206(57222) (FastEthernet 0/3) -> 10.10.1.5 (6667), 3 packets. *Jul 15 14:47:38.779:%Router1: list 101 permitted tcp 220.127.116.11(57222) (FastEthernet 0/3) -> 10.10.1.5 (6667), 6 packets. *Jul 15 14:47:45.779:%Router1: list 101 permitted tcp 18.104.22.168(57222) (FastEthernet 0/3) -> 10.10.1.5 (6667), 8 packets. Which of the following BEST describes the compromised system?
A. It is running a rogue web server B. It is being used in a man-in-the-middle attack C. It is participating in a botnet D. It is an ARP poisoning attack
Explanation: In this question, we have a source computer (22.214.171.124) sending data to a single destination IP address 10.10.1.5. No data is being received back by source computer which suggests the data being sent is some kind of Denial-of-service attack. This is common practice for computers participating in a botnet. The port used is TCP 6667 which is IRC (Internet Relay Chat). This port is used by many Trojans and is commonly used for DoS attacks.
Software running on infected computers called zombies is often known as a botnet. Bots, by themselves, are but a form of software that runs automatically and autonomously. (For example, Google uses the Googlebot to find web pages and bring back values for the index.) Botnet, however, has come to be the word used to describe malicious software running on a zombie and under the control of a bot-herder. Denial-of-service attacks—DoS and DDoS—can be launched by botnets, as can many forms of adware, spyware, and spam (via spambots). Most bots are written to run in the background with no visible evidence of their presence. Many malware kits can be used to create botnets and modify existing ones.
Four weeks ago, a network administrator applied a new IDS and allowed it to gather baseline data. As rumors of a layoff began to spread, the IDS alerted the network administrator that access to sensitive client files had risen far above normal. Which of the following kind of IDS is in use?
A. Protocol based B. Heuristic based C. Signature based D. Anomaly based
Explanation: Most intrusion detection systems (IDS) are what is known as signature-based. This means that they operate in much the same way as a virus scanner, by searching for a known identity – or signature – for each specific intrusion event. And, while signature-based IDS is very efficient at sniffing out known methods of attack, it does, like anti-virus software, depend on receiving regular signature updates, to keep in touch with variations in hacker technique. In other words, signature-based IDS is only as good as its database of stored signatures. Any organization wanting to implement a more thorough – and hence safer – solution, should consider what we call anomaly-based IDS. By its nature, anomaly-based IDS is a rather more complex creature. In network traffic terms, it captures all the headers of the IP packets running towards the network. From this, it filters out all known and legal traffic, including web traffic to the organization’s web server, mail traffic to and from its mail server, outgoing web traffic from company employees and DNS traffic to and from its DNS server.
There are other equally obvious advantages to using anomaly-based IDS. For example, because it detects any traffic that is new or unusual, the anomaly method is particularly good at identifying sweeps and probes towards network hardware. It can, therefore, give early warnings of potential intrusions, because probes and scans are the predecessors of all attacks. And this applies equally to any new service installed on any item of hardware – for example, Telnet deployed on a network router for maintenance purposes and forgotten about when the maintenance was finished. This makes anomaly-based IDS perfect for detecting anything from port anomalies and web anomalies to mis-formed attacks, where the URL is deliberately mis-typed.
A retail store uses a wireless network for its employees to access inventory from anywhere in the store. Due to concerns regarding the aging wireless network, the store manager has brought in a consultant to harden the network. During the site survey, the consultant discovers that the network was using WEP encryption. Which of the following would be the BEST course of action for the consultant to recommend?
A. Replace the unidirectional antenna at the front of the store with an omni-directional antenna. B. Change the encryption used so that the encryption protocol is CCMP-based. C. Disable the network’s SSID and configure the router to only access store devices based on MAC addresses. D. Increase the access point’s encryption from WEP to WPA TKIP.
Explanation: CCMP is the standard encryption protocol for use with the WPA2 standard and is much more secure than the WEP protocol and TKIP protocol of WPA. CCMP provides the following security services: Data confidentiality; ensures only authorized parties can access the information Authentication; provides proof of genuineness of the user Access control in conjunction with layer management
A: The antenna type deals with signal strength and direction. It will not have a bearing on whether technology is older.
C: This option would “cloak” the network, not harden the network.
D: WPA2, which uses CCMP as its standard encryption protocol, more secure than WPA-TKIP.
Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCMP http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi-Fi_Protected_Access Stewart, James Michael, CompTIA Security+ Review Guide, Sybex, Indianapolis, 2014, pp. 61, 63
Peter, a security administrator, believes that a network breach has occurred in the datacenter as a result of a misconfigured router access list, allowing outside access to an SSH server. Which of the following should Peter search for in the log files?
A. Failed authentication attempts B. Network ping sweeps C. Host port scans D. Connections to port 22
Explanation: Log analysis is the art and science of reviewing audit trails, log files, or other forms of computer-generated records for evidence of policy violations, malicious events, downtimes, bottlenecks, or other issues of concern. SSH uses TCP port 22. All protocols encrypted by SSH also use TCP port 22, such as SFTP, SHTTP, SCP, SExec, and slogin.
After a recent security breach, the network administrator has been tasked to update and backup all router and switch configurations. The security administrator has been tasked to enforce stricter security policies. All users were forced to undergo additional user awareness training. All of these actions are due to which of the following types of risk mitigation strategies?
A. Change management B. Implementing policies to prevent data loss C. User rights and permissions review D. Lessons learned
Explanation: Incident response procedures involves: Preparation; Incident identification; Escalation and notification; Mitigation steps; Lessons learned; Reporting; Recover/reconstitution procedures; First responder; Incident isolation (Quarantine; Device removal); Data breach; Damage and loss control. Described in the question is a situation where a security breach had occurred and its response which shows that lessons have been learned and used to put in place measures that will prevent any future security breaches of the same kind.
Which of the following is a step in deploying a WPA2-Enterprise wireless network?
A. Install a token on the authentication server B. Install a DHCP server on the authentication server C. Install an encryption key on the authentication server D. Install a digital certificate on the authentication server
Explanation: When setting up a wireless network, you’ll find two very different modes of Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) security, which apply to both the WPA and WPA2 versions. The easiest to setup is the Personal mode, technically called the Pre-Shared Key (PSK) mode. It doesn’t require anything beyond the wireless router or access points (APs) and uses a single passphrase or password for all users/devices. The other is the Enterprise mode —which should be used by businesses and organizations—and is also known as the RADIUS, 802.1X, 802.11i, or EAP mode. It provides better security and key management, and supports other enterprise-type functionality, such as VLANs and NAP. However, it requires an external authentication server, called a Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) server to handle the 802.1X authentication of users.
To help you better understand the process of setting up WPA/WPA2-Enterprise and 802.1X, here’s the basic overall steps: Choose, install, and configure a RADIUS server, or use a hosted service.
Create a certificate authority (CA), so you can issue and install a digital certificate onto the RADIUS server, which may be done as a part of the RADIUS server installation and configuration. Alternatively, you could purchase a digital certificate from a public CA, such as GoDaddy or Verisign, so you don’t have to install the server certificate on all the clients. If using EAP-TLS, you’d also create digital certificates for each end-user. On the server, populate the RADIUS client database with the IP address and shared secret for each AP. On the server, populate user data with usernames and passwords for each end-user. On each AP, configure the security for WPA/WPA2-Enterprise and input the RADIUS server IP address and the shared secret you created for that particular AP. On each Wi-Fi computer and device, configure the security for WPA/WPA2-Enterprise and set the 802.1X authentication settings.